A celebrity sex tape is typically an amateur pornographic video recording involving one or more famous people which has, intentionally or unintentionally, been made available publicly. Such videos have often been released without the consent of their subjects and have damaged celebrities' careers. In , for example, a sex tape caused significant damage to Rob Lowe 's career. The surfacing of sex tapes has become so common that some are "leaked" as a marketing tool to advance or establish a media career. In contrast, a celebrity may take the route of openly releasing the tape and benefit directly from royalties as well as indirectly from the publicity.